After completion of construction experienced Il-28 1948 in the collective S. Ilyushin Design Bureau immediately switched to the development of a bomber jet class that could carry payloads weighing 2000 3500 kg over a distance of km with a maximum speed of 1000 km / h. This project has been decided to call the IL-30. At the heart of the power plant on a plane would use the TR-3 engines developed by a team of CB Lyul'ko.
First, a new bomber planned to establish a direct wing, but after the tests in TsAGI change your mind, because in a number of different reasons to have a problem with a huge drag and significant deformations of the wing structure. Because of this, we decided to install the wing swept shape with 12% in thickness and sweep in 35 degrees. With this type of wing eliminates much of the negative aspects, in particular the crisis decreased the intensity of the wave to provide the desired flight data, there is an excellent controllability of the aircraft.
But in itself swept wing had a number of significant drawbacks. In contrast to the direct wing lift in less swept to 20% percent. To remove this problem in the wing sweep IL-30 used two methods: the small narrowing carried on the wings and found on the surface of the ridges - aerodynamic partitions.
When we applied a small restriction, respectively, increased chords at the end sections. The small thickness of the wing bomber has led to a decrease in high-rise buildings have been added supporting elements of the wing. But reducing the height of development has led to difficulties throughout the layout of the aircraft. Since the amount of fuel decreased tonnage decreased and the flight distance that did not correspond to a given task. A possible solution could be the only suspension additional fuel tanks on the ends of the wings.
On the surface of the wings installed 4 pair aerodynamic vanes. They prevented the overflow boundary layer perpendicular to the wing span, prevent fulminant failure, smoothing it, as well as increased air vehicle longitudinal stability during high angles of attack. Also because of the swept wing designers had to take measures to ensure the desired characteristics and side-roll of the aircraft. But in this case there was a different problem: excessive lateral stability is detrimental to the side, which led to large fluctuations at low speeds. Fix it decided to help make the wing a negative angle cross-V, equal to 20, and the choice of the area of the vertical stabilizer.
Thus, to determine the placement of the horizontal tail, which had to be positioned at the vertical tail fin. This in turn has improved the handling of the aircraft, its longitudinal stability and reduce the impact of a strong bevel.
When designing the Il-30 great attention was paid to the reciprocity of the wing and fuselage arrangement. Blowing in the pipe showed that having a cylindrical middle part of the fuselage, and the wave interference resistance provides minimum sagittal layout wing to the fuselage sredneplana scheme. Despite all the difficulties, the engineers decided to pick it up.
Such placement of the wing led to the complication of the deployment engine and the chassis. Studies have shown that the optimal location of the power plant are made by far in front of the engine nacelles TR-3. They should be pressed against the bottom surface of the wing. From chassis chosen bicycle. Only two bearings mounted in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, and placed at a great distance.
Front support Il-30 completed landmark. Is governed by the movement of the pedals of the guide wheel in the cockpit. Back support is available for the bomb bay, which is located in the center of mass of the air unit. On the rear wheels installed powerful brakes. When driving on the ground and parked aircraft roll on the wings light prevents additional supports placed under each gondola, holding the engine. These bearings were subjected to a relatively small load and safely cleaned in a small fairing bottom surface of each gondola. That IL-30, jet bomber, was first used in the USSR bicycle chassis circuit.
The crew consists of four people: navigator, the pilot and two gunners. All the crew seats are protected by armor. In case of emergency the pilot could eject, and the arrows and the navigator leave the aircraft via the lower escape hatches.
By plane found 6 23 HP-guns, to protect the front of the hemisphere met 2 stationary type gun. They installed in the nose of the aircraft. Behind the rear hemisphere met 2 movable type gun mounted on the turret IL-V12. At the tail of the fuselage mounted aft turret IL-KB. The maximum bomb load of IL-30 - 4000 kg.
From the equipment on the aircraft used only for the most advanced at that time. In particular the present radar antenna pan, which covered a hemispherical radome. It was also different radio engineering, advanced navigation and flight control, and special equipment. We apply a new anti-icing system and full cockpit sealing.
The first prototype was built Il-30 49, the summer, and in September a pilot V. Kokkinaki did some test driving it. But in the air, he never rose. Applied wing scheme ahead of its time, but was not suitable for such a fuselage, and the problem was with the TP-3 engines. The last argument became urgent transfer of the entire KB team for the construction of IL-28 modifications.
Ilyushin Il-30 characteristics:
|Wing area, m2||100.0|
|engine's type||TRD TR-2 3|
|Thrust, kgf||X 2 4600|
|Speed, km / h|
|highest in the land||900|
|at the height of the maximum||1000|
|Flight distance, km||3500|
|Practical ceiling, m||13000|
|Armament:||6 x 23 mm HP-23: to protect the front hemisphere of two fixed guns mounted in the fuselage nose, to protect the rear half of the upper hemisphere two movable cannon upper turret IL-V12 controlled remotely, in the tail of the aft turret IL-K6,|
|Bomb load: normal - 2000 kg, maximum - 4000 kg.|
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