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IL-12
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IL-12

Ilyushin Il-12

 

IL-12 a passenger plane for flights to medium-haul routes. The codification of international organizations, NATO has the Coach designation, which means "long-distance bus." This machine was designed and in the cargo version, which expanded its application. The machine is made in the scheme of all-metal aircraft with two engines which are arranged on the wings. This nizkoplan equipped with piston engines and had a standard tricycle landing gear. The first IL-12 plane took off from the runway in the middle of August 1945 years. When this ship was no longer a need to use this aircraft as Li-2 on the airline of the Soviet Union.

History of the IL-12

The new project of passenger aircraft under the designation Il-12 1943 was launched in the autumn of the year in the design Ilyushin bureau. The first study of the body allowed designers to calculate the occupancy 29 passengers in the cabin. The machine could fly 5 thousand kilometers at normal speed 400 km / h. Originally planned to equip the machine with four engine model M-88V, but were eventually selected diesel engines of type AH-31. When installing them changed the number of passenger seats in the cabin before 27. Also we decided to manufacture the fuselage leaking.

IL-12

Sketch liner was ready in the beginning of autumn 44 years, then started for the creation of an experimental model. The first flight in August 45 years has been carried out under the control of the Test B. Kokkinaki and K. Kokkinaki. During subsequent flights, it became clear that the machine requires significant improvements, the main problem was the power plant. This eventually led to the replacement of diesel engines in the petrol engines of the brand AL-82FN. It was finalized under the wing of the settings. Testing IL-12 with new engines continued from January 46 years. At the first departure was discovered violent shaking of screws, it was decided the creation of a new design of screws and increase their rigidity.

IL-12

State tests of the unit took place in the late summer of 46 years, as a result of the quality of construction was confirmed and high performance characteristics. IL-12 was presented to the public in the same year, on parade in Tushino. Since October 46, the car was sent to the serial production of the Moscow Aviation Plant.

Design features of the IL-12

In addition to the passenger, it was designed and transport version, which had exactly the same hull design and the basic units. To control the machine took five crew members, among whom were two pilots, a radio operator, and navigator onboard mechanic.

The case was made with the help of beams and stringers where there 48 51 frames and stringers, which is attached to the machine cladding. In the forward cockpit section was located, which was for the luggage compartment. The cargo version of the IL-12 in the left side cargo door is large.

IL-12

The wings consist of three spars and manufactured cantilever version. On each console, wing fairings installed. To control the machine in flight wings are equipped with slotted ailerons and flaps. The peculiarity of the wing is a system that provides heating and it does not frost up emu. All feathering IL-12 has a cantilever structure of the form.

chassis system consists of three pillars, which are removed in the middle of the body during the flight. On the main bearing is set on two wheels with brake systems. The front leg does not brake, but also has two wheels.

IL-12

The aircraft is equipped with two types of engine AL-82FN, they are air-cooled and thus develop capacity in 1850 horsepower at takeoff. Gasoline, which is supplied with the engine, placed in ten fuel tanks with total capacity of 6 thousand liters. The appliance is fitted screws of a new design and are designated AB-9V the changing step in the flight.

IL-12 characteristics:



Modification IL-12
Wingspan, m 31.70
Aircraft Length m 21.31
Height, m 7.80
Wing area, m2 103.0
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 11000
maximum take-off 17250
Domestic fuel l 6500
engine's type 2 PD Shvetsov Ash-82FNV
Power, hp X 2 1830
Maximum speed km / h  
on high 407
near the ground 366
Ferry range, km 3800
Practical range, km 2200
Practical ceiling, m 6700
Crew 4
Payload: 27-32 2160 kg passenger or cargo

 

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Comments

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History oozes passenger has its origins in the middle of the 30's when SV Ilyushin decided to create civilian aircraft on the basis of experimental bomber TSKB26. The seemingly most inconvenient for the passenger theme time, the height of the Second World War, he was in 1943 KB start designing the plane, which was supposed to surpass all the characteristics of a ship as a reference 3 BC and its Soviet equivalent LEE 2.
But at the same time, Ilyushin foresaw that after the war, Aeroflot can not do without a new aircraft and very time began to work ahead of all potential competitors.
IL12 project was approved in January 1944 years, and soon began serial production of machinery.
But even after the launch of the aircraft in a series of KB constructors engaged its modernization, which significantly increase the comfort and safety of the aircraft.
The plane was built in the following versions:
IL12 vysokoplaner with engines ACh 31
IL12-32 for a short length of line.
IL12-16
IL12-11
IL12-6-version of the special purpose.
IL12T- tows landing planerYaK14
IL12D-troop - transport aircraft.
In general, after numerous modifications designers managed to create a reliable liner. His speed, range and comfort level was much higher than that of LI2, but the Achilles heel of aircraft engines remained. Their TBO was 100 - 150 hours that * Aeroflot * could swoop over the last month - half. And if somewhere in the Central Office GVF problem was solved by replacing part of the engine, on the periphery get * extra * new engine was impossible. Therefore, very often in the initial period of operation of Elah idle newcomers and veterans unpretentious LEE 2 continued to fly. Designers, of course, brought the motor to peacetime requirements. Its share increased to 300 first, and then more hours, but - really reliable version of the engine was the AL 82 - T, which are already installed on IL14.Po whenever the GVF IL12 the aircraft began to transfer to the local airline Air, where the car worked until 1970 year.
In addition to work on the lines * Aeroflot * IL12 used in the Arctic and the Antarctic, where they repeatedly commit forwarding flights.

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