International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
ICAO - a specialized agency of the UN protocol on the recognition of which was signed in October 1 1947, and entered into force in May 13 1948, the ICAO is an international governmental organization. Initially, after the signing of the Chicago Convention, there was a Temporary International Civil Aviation Organization (Provisional International Civil Aviation Organisation - PICAO). After the entry into force in April 4 1947 of the Chicago Convention on 1-second sessionAssembly held in Montreal in May 1947 PICAO was renamed the ICAO. At the suggestion of the Government of Canada the location of the ICAO Headquarters in Montreal was chosen.
The main objectives of ICAO, in accordance with the provisions of the Chicago Convention, are the issues of global significance to international civil aviation:
- develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation;
- foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to ensure the safe and orderly development of the international Civil Aviation;
- the promotion of art and design of aircraft operation for peaceful purposes;
- encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international GA;
- meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport;
- prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;
- ensure full respect of the rights of fair and for each of them opportunities to use the airline, engaged in international air traffic;
- avoid discrimination in the relations between states;
- ensuring the safety of international air navigation;
- promoting the development of international civil aeronautics in all its aspects.
Composition and status of ICAO determined by the provisions of the Chicago Convention, which is, in fact, is the charter of ICAO. In accordance with the Chicago Convention, ICAO consists of the Assembly (Assembly), the Board (with the subordinate bodies) and Secretariat (Secretariat). The Council and the Secretariat headed by the President (President) of the Council and the Secretary-General (Secretary General), who are the main officials of ICAO.
ICAO Assembly is composed of representatives of all Contracting States and a sovereign supreme body of ICAO. The Assembly is convened every three years (if there is no need for an extraordinary convocation). At the sessions of the Assembly details the work of ICAO, policymakers in the years ahead and approved the budget for the three-year period of activity by voting. Each Contracting State shall have one vote. Decisions of the Assembly are taken by majority vote (except in cases provided by the Chicago Convention).
ICAO Assembly elects the Council (Council), which consists of representatives from the 33 Contracting States and is the leading executive body of ICAO, constantly guiding its work in the period between Assemblies. Elections to the Council of ICAO conducted with the requirements of the rotation provided by the Chicago Convention, and on the basis of adequate representation of the three groups, namely, playing a leading role in air transport; not included in the Council on other grounds, but contribute most to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation; not included in the Council on other grounds, but the election which provides representation in the Council of ICAO all the major geographic regions of the world.
The Chicago Convention provides for cooperation between the Contracting States in ensuring the highest possible degree of uniformity in the rules adopted by the national aviation. To this end, the Council of ICAO endowed with regulatory powers which do not have similar governing bodies in other international organizations.
ICAO Council is elected for three years its President, who does not have the right to vote and may be re-elected. The duties of the President are as follows:
- collect Council meeting ICAO, the Air Transport Committee (Air Transport Committee) and the Air Navigation Commission (Air Navigation Commission);
- to act as a representative of the Council; carry out on behalf of the functions assigned to it in the Council.
The functions of the Council of ICAO included (Article 54 Chicago Convention):
- appointment and definition of the responsibilities of the Air Transport Committee, which is formed from among the members of the Board and shall be responsible to them;
- the establishment of the Air Navigation Commission; the appointment of the Chief Executive Officer - General Secretary;
- adoption of SARPs, which are issued as annexes to the Chicago Convention;
- consideration of the recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for the change and the adoption of SARPs in connection with the relevant measures provided for by the Chicago Convention, and others.
ICAO Council is empowered to convene the Assembly of ICAO.
Each committee or a specialized body meets ICAO ICAO Secretariat unit, staffed by persons selected on the basis of technical competence in the field. Personnel departments designed to provide technical and administrative assistance to representatives of the governments that make up the Council of ICAO, committees and specialized bodies.
Secretariat of ICAO, led by Secretary General, has five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau (Air Navigation Bureau), the Air Transport Department (Air Transport Bureau), the Office of Technical Cooperation (Technical Cooperation Bureau), the Legal Office (Legal Bureau), and the Administrative Office (Bureau of Administration and Services). The staff shall be recruited on a wide geographical basis, which provides international representation in its activities.
ICAO works in close collaboration with other members of the UN - government organizations, which are: the World Meteorological Organization (World Meteorological Organization), the International Telecommunication Union (International Telecommunication Union), the International Telecommunication Union (International Telecommunication Union), UPU (Universal Postal Union), the World Health Organization (World Health Organization), the International Labour Organization (International Labour Organisation) and the International Maritime Organization (International Maritime Organization). The activities carried out by ICAO, participating non-governmental organizations: International Air Transport Association (International Air Transport Association - IATA), Airports Council International (Airports Council International - ICA), International Federation of Airline Pilots' Associations (International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations) , the World Tourism Organization (World Tourism Organization) and other international organizations.
International standards (SARPs) for convenience, as Annexes to the Chicago Convention. For the safety and regularity of international air navigation deemed necessary to the uniform application of the requirements included the Contracting States in international standards. According to Article 38 the Chicago Convention, in the case of non-compliance with an international standard of the Contracting States shall notify the Council of ICAO of the differences between the national aviation regulations or practices of a State and the provisions of the International Standard.
Uniform application of the requirements included in the Recommended Practices is regarded as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. Although the Chicago Convention and does not impose any obligations in respect of Recommended Practice, the Council requested the ICAO Contracting States to notify differences not only with the international standards, but with the Recommended Practices.
ICAO released a series of technical publications, as well as special editions, which are not included in any of the series of technical publications (such as "Product of aeronautical charts ISAO" or "meteorological table".
Procedures for Air Navigation Services (Procedures of Air Navigation Service - PANS) are approved by the Council of ICAO. Designed for use worldwide, they comprise operating rules, which have not yet received the status of SARPs, as well as materials more permanent character which is considered too detailed, so they can be included in the Annex, or is susceptible to frequent amendment, for which the process provided for by the Chicago Convention, it would be too cumbersome. Currently, there are four main document PANS: Doc 4444 «Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services"; Doc 8168 «Aircraft Operations" (Tom 1 «Flight Procedures" and Tom 2 «Construction of Visual Flight and Instrument Flight"); Doc 8400 «Abbreviations and Codes ICAO»; Doc 7030 «Regional Supplementary Procedures."
All of the globe by the ICAO Council is divided into nine areas of air navigation:
- 1. Africa and the Indian Ocean (AIF);
- 2. South-East Asia (SEA);
- 3. European (EUR);
- 4. North Atlantic (NAT);
- 5. North American (NAM);
- 6. South African (SAM);
- 7. Caribbean (CAR);
- 8. Middle East (MID);
- 9. Pacific (PAC).
Regional Supplementary Procedures (Supplementary Procedures - SUPPS) have the same status as PANS, but apply only in the respective regions. They are developed inconsolidated form, since some of them apply to overlapping regions or are common to two or more regions.
Technical manuals that are prepared under the authority of the Secretary-General ICAO, provide guidance and information, developing and supplementing the International Standards, Recommended Practices and PANS, and serve to assist in their application.
Aeronautical Tany also prepared with the approval of the Secretary-General on the recommendations of ICAO regional air navigation meetings and decisions made by the Council of ICAO. They detail requirements for facilities and services for international air navigation in the respective regions, aeronautical ICAO. The Aeronautical plans are amended periodically to reflect changes in requirements and regulations related to the implementation of the recommended facilities and services.
Circulars ICAO, which is also produced with the approval of the Secretary-General ICAO, provide specific information of interest to Contracting States, including studies on technical subjects.
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
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- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
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