Fotopulemet (fotokinopulemet) - automatic camera, which is installed on combat aircraft for the purpose of objective control use of weapons, usually gunnery (control operation of sighting systems and systems of complex systems is carried out on a number of parameters). Turning fotokinopulemeta synchronized with the trigger (firing switches). In more modern aircraft instead of film fotopulemetov use camera capable of recording video to digital media or tape.
Fotopulemety first appeared during the First World War. Initially, they were used to train combat pilots (as bombers and fighter planes), usually fotopulemet was attached to the training aircraft fuselage, hung on underwing pylons, or installed instead of defensive weapons. A little later began to practice fotopulemeta incorporation into the design of the aircraft. Gun camera, which was used for training shooters, usually repeated appearance, dimensions and main components of weapons used in aviation. Presumably it is because of this particular device is called "fotopulemet."
During the Second World War fotopulemety widespread. They are mounted on a training aircraft, fighters, attack planes and bombers. These materials with their help serve as proof of the victory of the shooter or the pilot. Mainly used in the British, American and German fighter aircraft. The Soviet army had fotopulemety not all parts of the aircraft. Even where they were not always used. Many military newsreel footage was filmed using fotokinopulemetov.
The first survey of German attack on the Soviet fighters and-153, which took place in 5 hours 20 22.06.1941, the minutes, kept at the British Museum of World War II in London.
The most common in the German aircraft was fotopulemet EK 16, in Soviet - PAH-22.
Gun camera really improved fixing downed military enemy aircraft. They were presented to the cameras, which are actuated by pressing the pilot gashetok fire from machine guns and cannons. Initially, they were used only for training purposes. The training battle is simply unacceptable the use of the weapons, and the only way to fix the results of the battle provided fotopulemet. During training fotopulemety sometimes even hung next to the items of armament, and in his stead. Also, the use fotopulemeta was due to economic considerations. The cost of high-explosive shells "ShVAK" in 1936 city It was 20 rubles, and a fighter pilot during a training flight could shoot one departure his annual salary. Analysis of the film helps to determine whether the pilot correctly determined the distance to the ground or air targets, as shells and bullets, he released (this is determined by the duration of the shooting). In Soviet planes fotopulemet PAH-22 established before the war. On-16 And it was fixed on the plane in a special fairing fairing. However, in real combat effectiveness fotopulemetov was the worst. Although outwardly very similar fotopulemet with a camera, shooting at the pace of the slowest device, about 8-10 frames per second. And the most important - is that fotopulemet off immediately after you release the trigger the application of the fire. Accordingly, he could not fix defeat the purpose of the last shell and stop recording even up to the moment when the projectile reaches the target. Moreover, it does not track the actions of enemy aircraft after being hit. Just install the enemy plane crashed after a fire line or disappeared from sight, it was impossible.
If the film were not detected bright pyrotechnic effects, for example, the explosion of tanks, can be determined only correct aiming and no more. This is especially true of American fighters, which were the main weapon caliber machine guns 12,7 mm. A bullet fired from this gun, could easily kill the pilot, but for the total destruction of the aircraft needed to exact hit a large number of bullets.
Queues of heavy machine guns in field conditions saw off the plane like a circular saw, but to repeat the same in the real battle was difficult. The results of the shooting worsened mounting machine guns in the wings. Convergence trails firing of the guns were at 300 meters in front of the aircraft. If aerial target is closer or farther away, it affects only part of the machine-gun armament. Not all was in order with the cannon fighter USSR.
Modifications German planes "Messerschmitt-109" later version "Bf.109F-4" duralumin trimmed armor. These were 27 sheets each having a thickness 0,8 mm. Armor-piercing shells and heavy machine gun could penetrate this barrier, but the partition forced prematurely trigger the detonators high-explosive shells.
The explosion of the projectile in the tank did not happen, so getting into the "Messerschmitt" one or several 20-mm shells could not guarantee the destruction of the aircraft.
Fotopulemety were very imperfect fixing device results in air combat. Despite the fact that they are actively used by the Germans and the Allies during the war, and since 1943, became massively install PAH-22 on Soviet combat aircraft, they did not reveal the real picture of the downed.
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