"King-plane" (aka "Tsar Bomba" AN602, and wrongly, RN202 and RDS-202) - thermonuclear bombs, which was developed in 1954 - 1961 years. a team of nuclear physicists under the guidance of IV Kurchatov. In the history of the most powerful explosive device. According to various sources, the total energy of the explosion ranged from up to 57 58,6 megatons of TNT, which corresponds to the mass defect 2,65 kg, or about 2,4 1017 • J.
The number of developers were N. Babayev, Yuri Smirnov, VB Adamski, Sakharov, Y. A. Trutnev and others.
Immediately is to say that the official name of the bomb AN602 had. The original name of "gruel" first appeared under the impression statements N. C. Khrushchev, who was known to all: "We'll show America gruel!". In correspondence to RN202 applied another designation "product B" (the so-called and subsequently AN602). Therefore, today it is a source of confusion. AN602 often identified (wrongly) with RN202 or RDS-37. Moreover, as a result of AN602 appeared and "hybrid" designation RDS-202. As for the name "king-bomb", it appeared due to the fact that the product was the most destructive and powerful weapon in history.
Development of the "king-aircraft"
There is a common myth that the "Tsar Bomb" was created in a record short time on the orders of Khrushchev. The design and creation was allegedly spent 112 days. It turns out that the work on the project took place over seven years - with 1954 1961 on year, with 2-summer break. And in 1954-1958 years. stomegatonnoy over bomb work led SRI-1011. Transportation and disposal of the bomb placed on the shoulders of a time-tested bomber Tu-95 and ego modification of the Tu-95V.
The design of the bomb made many design changes. AN602 characterized by a three-tier structure, namely a nuclear warhead 1-Tier launched thermonuclear reaction in 2-th stage, and she initiated the so-called nuclear reaction Jekyll-Hyde in 3-th stage. Total estimated capacity - 101,5 megatons.
The original version of the bomb was rejected because of high contamination. It was therefore decided to abandon the "reaction Jekyll-Hyde" and lead to replace the equivalent uranium components. As a result, the estimated power of the explosion has decreased to 51,5 megatons.
In the autumn of the year 1954 held talks with Igor Kurchatov AN Tupolev, resulting began studies on "the topic 242». AV Nadashkevich became the leader of the topic. As a result of structural analysis found that the suspension of such a large concentrated load needs to be major changes in the design of the bomb bay, the scheme of the original aircraft and discharge devices and suspension.
The weight, dimension and layout drawings AN602 were agreed in the first half of 1955 Weight bombs, as planned, was 15 percent of the take-off weight of the carrier, but its large size made to remove the fuselage fuel tanks. New beam DB-242 holder and BD7-95-242 has been designed for suspension. He was close to OBD-206 on design features, but much capacity. He had 3 castle bomber carrying capacity of nine tonnes each. It is attached directly to the power longitudinal beams. Also, the problem of managing the bomb dump has been solved - three locks were opened simultaneously by the PLC.
Draft resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers and the CPSU Central Committee on the preparation and the beginning of the test was passed in March 12 1956, the
Explosion AN602 classification refers to the low-power ultra aerial bombings. Everyone was impressed by the results:
1. Fiery explosion hit the ball radius 4,6 km. Theoretically, it is able to rise to the surface, but the reflected shock wave to prevent it, throwing it off the ground.
2. A nuclear mushroom explosion at an altitude of 67 km, the diameter of its two-tier "hats" in the upper tier reached 95 km.
3. The light could cause burns 3 degree at a distance of one hundred kilometers.
4. Sensible seismic wave that emerged after the explosion, circled the globe three times.
5. Witnesses felt a blow from a distance 100 km from the center and were able to describe it.
6. The sound wave that was generated by the explosion reached the Islands Dixon approximately 800 km. But about any damage or destruction of buildings even are much closer (280 km) landfill settlements Belushya Guba and Amderma sources are not reported.
7. Radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the epicenter was no more than 1 mR per hour. After a 2 hours after the explosion at the site were the epicenter of the testers. Radioactive contamination poses little danger to the participants.
8. The ionization of the atmosphere caused interference to radio communications at a distance of a hundred kilometers from the landfill over 40 min.
The main objective pursued by the testers, - demonstration of Soviet superpower possession of weapons of mass destruction. By the time the largest TNT equivalent power of a thermonuclear bomb in the US was almost 4 times less than the AN602.
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