Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - Strategic Bomber US replaced "Boeing" in-29. In-52 aircraft entered service with the city 1951 and since then it is one of the key bombers. His longevity is exceptional due to the fact that when you create it envisaged the possibility to upgrade. This applies primarily to replace the avionics and weapons with more modern. Combat capabilities of strategic bombers are very large, it is said the results of the participation of the aircraft in almost all the fighting that led the United States during the second half of the XX century.
The aircraft Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, or as it is called, "Stratospheric fortress" is a heavy strategic bomber for intercontinental flights with bomb load on board. This machine was designed by American designers for the Air Force in 1955 year.
The main objective in the design was the replacement of less-efficient old bomber type B-36. The new machine could carry out flights at altitudes in 15 kilometers while carrying powerful weapons, which could go and nuclear. Yet the main task of the unit was delivering thermonuclear bombs on Soviet territory. This machine is a record of all combat aircraft for the flight range, but the Soviet Union had its counterweight in the form of the Tu-95. In addition, in-52 used for military purposes more than 50 years.
Despite the fact that this machine was designed during the Cold War, and today she is still in service and will be used to 2040 years. In use, the aircraft will undergo constant upgrades. Thus, according to the latest figures, the US government plans to spend on upgrading about 12 billion.
A brief history of the creation and use of aircraft Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
After the development of the aircraft in-52 it was prepared by three flying prototypes. The first aircraft of this type took off in August 1954 years. Mass production of these machines are quite active as to the 62 744, it was ready to such apparatus and its various modifications. The best-known modifications are models GB-52G and OB 52R that used primarily for pilot training. It was also established model NB-52, whose main focus was the launch of a new generation of hypersonic aircraft with the designation X-15.
The aircraft is the holder of many world records, they are mainly concerned range. So, with the help of the flight it was carried out without landing around the Americas. Conducted flights over the pole, and the car made its way into the 27 thousand kilometers. In winter, the link 57 three aircraft in-52 made a round the world flight, the distance which was almost 40 thousand kilometers. For this purpose machines needed 45 hours at 850 velocity in km / h. Combat missions with the discharge of the hydrogen bomb was made 21 May 56 years.
These planes made constant vigil on the strategic US bases and were ready to make a departure from nuclear weapons on board. But 88, the number of databases with data bombers dropped to 12 pieces. In the early 90-ies on constant alert was about 40 machines of this type. Due to the fact that the car was designed to fly at high altitudes and release powerful bombs, the system run, by and large, it was not necessary, yet the designers have equipped the machine with an optical sight.
Comparing with the previous new aircraft bomber-29, it can be concluded that the new car had a significantly higher level speed and thus could climb to great heights. This means that designers in-52 reached their tasks. In addition, these indicators increased survivability unit with combat operations. The creators of the project have spent a lot of time to ensure that this machine could easily go on a low altitude, and perform more difficult maneuvers. To do this, many systems have been strengthened hull. Yet it should be noted that in-52 strongly reacted to the changing wind currents. This was due to the large mass of the structure and fairly large wings that were lax.
Design features bomber Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
The machine is made in the normal aerodynamic scheme in which the wings are located high. In order to ensure separation from the runway and rather high horizontal velocity of the vehicle has been equipped with 8 engines that were attached to the paired nacelle mounted on the wings. The aircraft was equipped with a powerful system of bicycle landing gear. Various modifications of the bomber had different resource exploitation. Thus, model B-52D was calculated 6 thousand hours of flight, and the model in-52 G / H can be used for 12,5 thousand hours.
As for the wings, they have been made in decompression scheme using two beam side members of metal. They had an arrow-shaped, with a sweep angle reached 37 degrees on the leading edge. The fuselage of the machine wings were attached at an angle of 8 °.
The fuselage of the machine is built as a monocoque structure and has an oval cross-section, with the flat side walls. The nose compartment device installed cockpit. It should be noted that control this unit should 6 crew members. The cabin was low, which does not allow pilots to move in full growth. As mentioned earlier, the case has been strengthened by the installation of the septum, which connected the tail and the central compartment of the bomber. It was thought a new, more powerful paneling.
Despite the fact that designers have been developed, many modifications of the machine, in all cases the geometric dimensions remain unchanged, except for the length of the keel. In order to reduce the visibility of the ground-52 the lower portion stained white who defended the plane and powerful radiation from the explosion of a nuclear bomb.
For a more effective operation of the aircraft found a set of systems, among which were:
air conditioning system, which worked on the compressors mounted on motors;
system responsible for the management of mechanical wiring;
system to maintain normal microclimate in the cockpit to fly at high altitudes, oxygen tanks with a capacity 8 liters;
emergency power system with regulators and current transducers that allow the flight to continue effective;
heating system wings and the housing, which prevents their in-flight icing.
As regards navigation equipment, it was similar in all models in-52. All machines of this type have a powerful radar installations that were active, ie may cause radio interference and misinformed action. To protect against attacks on enemy aircraft set traps and infrared reflectors dipole type.
At this time, project-52 The aircraft continues to evolve and modernize because it is quite relevant and in demand in the US Air Force. To obtain the desired characteristics of the designers working on many programs. Basically, the machine is ready for military action by non-nuclear weapons on board. So, due to improvements in 80-ies on the wings were installed holders for the new generation of missiles. This greatly increased the combat power of the aircraft Boeing B-52 Stratofortress.
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress characteristics:
|Aircraft Length m||48.03|
|Wing area, m2||371.60|
|engine's type||8 turbojets Pratt & Whitney J57-P-43WV|
|Link unforced, kgf|
|Rated||8 x 5080|
|injection water mixture||X 8 6240|
|Maximum speed km / h||1024|
|Cruising speed, km / h||842|
|Ferry range, km||12836|
|Combat range, km||6600|
|Max. climb, m / min||1661|
|Practical ceiling, m||14326|
|Armament:||Four 12.7-mm machine gun M3|
|Bomb load up to 22680 kg|
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