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Artificial horizon
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Artificial horizon

Artificial horizon

 

Artificial horizon - Is one of the instruments onboard aircraft, which is used to display and determine the slopes, roll, pitch plane. It allows to identify the actual angle of the aircraft relative to a vertical plane. With the help of the artificial horizon pilots performed alignment and stabilization of the machine in the air.

What is Artificial horizon

Artificial horizon allows you to operate with minimum visibility, while the lead aircraft in the horizontal plane. Not all aircraft are equipped with artificial horizon, a small low-speed model designed for visual control.

Classification gyrohorizons

Self-contained artificial horizon - a measuring device, which is made a single system. For such a system is only conveyed pneumatically or electrically powered. Modern instruments of this type have a standalone battery. Yet the self-attitude indicator is in communication with a display and a hygroscopic sensor system, power is turned off, such devices can effectively work offline for a few minutes.

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Remote aerial horizon is an electromechanical device that consists of separate systems and units of flight indication. The measuring instrument in such gyro horizons is gyrovertical, and the indicator is the horizon indicator. Very often, the horizon indicator acts as a complex display system that can perform several navigation functions. The established remote aerial horizons are more accurate, since the gyrovertical can be located directly near the center of gravity of the aircraft, respectively, and the readings will be more accurate.

Display gyrohorizons

For the principle of the display, change the flying vessel angles there are two types, namely, a plane view of the earth "FAZ" and the view from the aircraft to the ground "Supreme Military Council".

A direct display system, or SBS, is a more common system, in which the orientation of the aircraft is set by the background image, it rotates along the roll and pitch of the machine. This background image is a line on the border of blue and brown, previously used black and gray. The line itself acts as an artificial horizon. Before the image of the device itself, the silhouette of the aircraft is fixed. On the front panel of the horizon, a scale is plotted, along which the angle of inclination of the apparatus is measured. The pitch angle is determined by crossing the silhouette of the aircraft with the scale of the moving background. Each scale mark is responsible for 10 or 5 degrees of pitch. Such a scheme of indication is used on helicopters or low-maneuverable airplanes.

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Contact the artificial horizon display FAZ or displays the angle of pitch and roll as if the aircraft is observed from the ground. The scale and a movable screen of the device to navigate up or down. The bank is determined by the scale of the apparatus, which is applied around the circumference of the body relative to the artificial horizon silhouette of the aircraft.

There kinetic limitations due to this distinction, "warp" and "knocks" artificial horizon. The process of "knocking out" artificial horizon is due to the coincidence of the axes of rotation of the rotor with the frame of the gyroscope suspension. In this case, the degree of freedom gyroscope loses and orientation in space. Therefore, the restriction introduced in the design scope of the rotation angle on the pitch. Modern instruments for nevybivaemosti are gyro stabilized platform, as well as an inertial system. All the systems have limitations gyrohorizons angular velocity.

Other aircraft units

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