Artificial horizon - Is one of the instruments onboard aircraft, which is used to display and determine the slopes, roll, pitch plane. It allows to identify the actual angle of the aircraft relative to a vertical plane. With the help of the artificial horizon pilots performed alignment and stabilization of the machine in the air.
Artificial horizon allows you to operate with minimum visibility, while the lead aircraft in the horizontal plane. Not all aircraft are equipped with artificial horizon, a small low-speed model designed for visual control.
Self-contained artificial horizon - a measuring device, which is made a single system. For such a system is only conveyed pneumatically or electrically powered. Modern instruments of this type have a standalone battery. Yet the self-attitude indicator is in communication with a display and a hygroscopic sensor system, power is turned off, such devices can effectively work offline for a few minutes.
Remote aviagorizont - is an electromechanical device which consists of separate systems and units flight display. The measuring device in such acts gyrovertical attitude indicator and the indicator is a pointer to the horizon. Very often, the pointer appears as a horizon display complex system that can perform several navigation functions. Installed remote attitude indicator is more accurate because gyrovertical can be placed directly at the center of gravity of the aircraft, respectively, and the reading will be more accurate.
For the principle of the display, change the flying vessel angles there are two types, namely, a plane view of the earth "FAZ" and the view from the aircraft to the ground "Supreme Military Council".
Direct display system, or SCAF, a common system, based on the orientation of the plane defined by the background image, it turns on the roll and pitch of the machine. This background image is a line on the border of blue and brown, formerly used black and gray. The line itself acts as an artificial horizon. In front of the image of the device is fixedly attached plane silhouette. On the front of the artificial horizon marked scale on which and is counting down the angle of the device. The angle of pitch is determined by the intersection of the plane silhouette of the scale of the moving background. Each mark is responsible for the scale or 10 5 degree pitch. This scheme is used to display helicopters or airplanes malomanevrennyh.
Contact the artificial horizon display FAZ or displays the angle of pitch and roll as if the aircraft is observed from the ground. The scale and a movable screen of the device to navigate up or down. The bank is determined by the scale of the apparatus, which is applied around the circumference of the body relative to the artificial horizon silhouette of the aircraft.
There kinetic limitations due to this distinction, "warp" and "knocks" artificial horizon. The process of "knocking out" artificial horizon is due to the coincidence of the axes of rotation of the rotor with the frame of the gyroscope suspension. In this case, the degree of freedom gyroscope loses and orientation in space. Therefore, the restriction introduced in the design scope of the rotation angle on the pitch. Modern instruments for nevybivaemosti are gyro stabilized platform, as well as an inertial system. All the systems have limitations gyrohorizons angular velocity.
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