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ANT-1
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ANT-1

The aircraft Tupolev ANT-1. A photo. History. Characteristics.

 

ANT-1 - Single sport aircraft, which first took to the skies in October 21 1923 years. It was developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev. The project created the AN Tupolev based on their experience in the development of vehicles and snowmobiles. ANT-1 was a cantilever monoplane of mixed construction.

Andrei Tupolev, as a student at the Higher Technical School in 1909 year, met with NE Zhukovsky. Tupolev, conquered his ideas, decides to dedicate himself to the development of domestic aircraft. He was particularly interested in the heavy aircraft (now we say "far" or "strategic").

ANT-1

Since December 1918 year, at the initiative of NE Zhukovsky Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute was opened. He was different from other academic institutions that specialize solely on theoretical issues, the fact that under the leadership of NE Zhukovsky was considered the main focus of an effective combination of scientific developments with the solution of urgent problems of the economy. This approach has defined the future direction of development of aviation in our country. After his death, a panel headed by TsAGI SA Chaplygin. AN Tupolev became the head of the aviation department.

It's time to practice. And it had to start with the strategic decisions: the choice of unit circuits, as well as material for its creation. The designer decided not to dwell on the usual scheme of a biplane and began to study the scheme cantilever monoplane.

Determine the choice of material was much more difficult. Domestic planes were made of wood, to take at least an example of four-engine airplane "Ilya Muromets". It was created from imported wood: spruce, Oregon pine, hickory. We adherents of the traditional aircraft were strong arguments: open space for maintenance and repair, the presence of factories producing planes for long-proven technology, professional engineering and technical personnel. Huge forest arrays allow Russia to hope for a regular supply of aircraft factories building materials.

ANT-1 photo

While for the construction of metal aircraft did not have the proper conditions: lack of factories that produce metal, people who know how to handle it, and its use of technology. Despite this, AN Tupolev became the leader of the scientific and technical intelligentsia, who believed that the future of aviation in the heavy-metal aircraft. By focusing on the shortcomings of wooden structures, the designers have pointed to the lack of uniform material physical and mechanical tests of wood, fully satisfying the requirements of the aircraft; little resistance to weathering, lack of ways to study the model ridges.

They also highlighted the dignity of future metal aircraft:

  • Metal with a practical uniformity will allow as accurate as possible to make calculations.

  • With mass (mass) production of positive displays metal manufacturability.

  • In improving industry and the accumulation of experience in the use of the metal in the construction of its mass will fall and will soon be much less than that of wood.

 

ANT-1 is the first Russian design where kolchugalyuminy was applied. Appointment ANT-1 - sports single aviette. Driving - cantilever monoplane, having a low-wing.

Rigid wing, one-piece with ribs consisting of kolchugalyuminiya. Wooden box-section spars. Fabric covering.

ANT-1

The engine is attached to the forward fuselage, which has a rectangular cross section. Part of the fuselage between the cockpit and the engine trimmed kolchugalyuminiem, the rest - canvas.

The six-cylinder engine in 35 hp Screw the wooden, two-blade.

The cockpit is located above the wing. The dashboard finishes visor, which protects against air flow. On the dashboard are a tachometer pointer speed at the bottom left, bottom right button ignition.

Throttle control is set on the left side. The chassis is composed of two disk wheels, which are fixed on the same axis. It is attached to the fuselage by four struts.

To the upper spars of the fuselage mounted stabilizer. Elevators consist of kolchugalyuminiya. The canvas trimmed with horizontal tail.

Rudder and keel areas made entirely of kolchugalyuminiya and covered with a cloth.

ANT-1 characteristics:



Modification ANT-1
Wingspan, m 7.20
Aircraft Length m 5.40
Height, m 1.70
Wing area, m2 10.00
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 229
maximum take-off 360
engine's type 1 PD Anzani
Power, hp X 1 35
Maximum speed km / h 125
Cruising speed, km / h 115
Practical range, km 540
Practical ceiling, m 600
Crew 1

 

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The young Soviet Republic, has not yet completed the Civil War, he began to think seriously about building airplanes. Moreover, the fundamental task of designing staged entirely of metal machines and testing new scheme cantilever wing with a view to establishing long-distance heavy air. TsAGI special laboratory (which subsequently became EDB) was established for this purpose under the direction of A. Tupolev, almost 10 years worked with NE Zhukovsky. Grandiose plans Tupolev always realistic approach to the assessment of existing technological and institutional capacities. Therefore, as a pilot of the aircraft, it was decided to establish a small sports ANT-1.
Immediately on the metal did not dare to go - until construction remained mixed, but the idea of ​​cantilever wing has already been implemented. By the standards of that time, ANT-1 done for a long time - nearly half a year. But not because of any troubles. By plane perfected methods of strength calculation of the wing of the new scheme, and refined features of the application of domestic aluminum alloys as advanced structural material in aircraft construction. ANT-1 performed several test flights, and then went down the engine. Replace it no one -mavr their job done. The only copy of the aircraft for many years stood in the hangar. From ANT-1 were only a matter of image, which is a pity.

Perhaps, and will not, but thanks to Tupolev began to build all-metal aircraft. On the one hand he is a pioneer and a very talented man, but on the other ... the complete rip-off. I am now about four (ANT-4). Or rather about American B-29. Tupolev Although this can not be blamed. He forced the then government. Who knows? Maybe he would have built excellent fighter. And only on the American bomber had left their size. By the way, is given to me, if on the first model popoteli b, then b able to transform it from an amateur fighter airplane in great.
I have the same question has ripened. ANT-1 do not seem to receive any continuation ?! ANT-2 from the first very different in appearance. So it is not one and the same plane.

Well I do not know. I can not share with you the same confidence about good grades first ANT. Already at that time were more good models of foreign production. Even in the Soviet Union already from the beginning to build a good aircraft. Tupolev undoubtedly made an enormous contribution to the history of Soviet aircraft, but his first-born did not become close to others.

Hello! I love this aircraft for its history. I mean, what ANT-1 is the first creation of the famous Soviet aircraft designer Tupolev. It is he was planning a sporty model, so nothing really serious with it itself is not. Due to the poverty of knowledge in the construction of air vehicles, as well as due to the fact that the Tupolev was a young ant-1 has a simple structure and, consequently, not very reliable. A huge disappointment at the time was also the fact of the main materela for the machine - metal, which at that time was not cheap. But it's a little later made Tupolev most famous Soviet aircraft.
You know, even now it is fashionable to do the old model airplanes. And that ANT-1 takes the last place in this regard. The only bad thing that the disk imaging very small ... and virtually no photo. However, one can find the drawings. Not all the time monoplanes boast similar. Although ANT-1 and built exclusively for sport and for this purpose equipped with engines Anzani-35 (Bristol), already at that time, many foreign analogues were superior both in its speed and maneuverability.
I believe that the main advantage of ANT is that its creator - Tupolev was the first at that time in the country who are contrary to the rest of the created all-metal aircraft. Although he was much more expensive for the wood (good enough wood), but this step in the future, helped the Soviet Air Force to win up over German fighters in WWII. We can say that it was the Tupolev "creator" of the first Soviet high-grade aircraft.

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