The aircraft Tupolev ANT-1. A photo. History. Characteristics.
ANT-1 - Single sport aircraft, which first took to the skies in October 21 1923 years. It was developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev. The project created the AN Tupolev based on their experience in the development of vehicles and snowmobiles. ANT-1 was a cantilever monoplane of mixed construction.
Andrei Tupolev, as a student at the Higher Technical School in 1909 year, met with NE Zhukovsky. Tupolev, conquered his ideas, decides to dedicate himself to the development of domestic aircraft. He was particularly interested in the heavy aircraft (now we say "far" or "strategic").
Since December 1918 year, at the initiative of NE Zhukovsky Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute was opened. He was different from other academic institutions that specialize solely on theoretical issues, the fact that under the leadership of NE Zhukovsky was considered the main focus of an effective combination of scientific developments with the solution of urgent problems of the economy. This approach has defined the future direction of development of aviation in our country. After his death, a panel headed by TsAGI SA Chaplygin. AN Tupolev became the head of the aviation department.
It's time to practice. And it had to start with the strategic decisions: the choice of unit circuits, as well as material for its creation. The designer decided not to dwell on the usual scheme of a biplane and began to study the scheme cantilever monoplane.
Determine the choice of material was much more difficult. Domestic planes were made of wood, to take at least an example of four-engine airplane "Ilya Muromets". It was created from imported wood: spruce, Oregon pine, hickory. We adherents of the traditional aircraft were strong arguments: open space for maintenance and repair, the presence of factories producing planes for long-proven technology, professional engineering and technical personnel. Huge forest arrays allow Russia to hope for a regular supply of aircraft factories building materials.
While for the construction of metal aircraft did not have the proper conditions: lack of factories that produce metal, people who know how to handle it, and its use of technology. Despite this, AN Tupolev became the leader of the scientific and technical intelligentsia, who believed that the future of aviation in the heavy-metal aircraft. By focusing on the shortcomings of wooden structures, the designers have pointed to the lack of uniform material physical and mechanical tests of wood, fully satisfying the requirements of the aircraft; little resistance to weathering, lack of ways to study the model ridges.
They also highlighted the dignity of future metal aircraft:
Metal with a practical uniformity will allow as accurate as possible to make calculations.
With mass (mass) production of positive displays metal manufacturability.
In improving industry and the accumulation of experience in the use of the metal in the construction of its mass will fall and will soon be much less than that of wood.
ANT-1 is the first Russian design where kolchugalyuminy was applied. Appointment ANT-1 - sports single aviette. Driving - cantilever monoplane, having a low-wing.
Rigid wing, one-piece with ribs consisting of kolchugalyuminiya. Wooden box-section spars. Fabric covering.
The engine is attached to the forward fuselage, which has a rectangular cross section. Part of the fuselage between the cockpit and the engine trimmed kolchugalyuminiem, the rest - canvas.
The six-cylinder engine in 35 hp Screw the wooden, two-blade.
The cockpit is located above the wing. The dashboard finishes visor, which protects against air flow. On the dashboard are a tachometer pointer speed at the bottom left, bottom right button ignition.
Throttle control is set on the left side. The chassis is composed of two disk wheels, which are fixed on the same axis. It is attached to the fuselage by four struts.
To the upper spars of the fuselage mounted stabilizer. Elevators consist of kolchugalyuminiya. The canvas trimmed with horizontal tail.
Rudder and keel areas made entirely of kolchugalyuminiya and covered with a cloth.
|Aircraft Length m||5.40|
|Wing area, m2||10.00|
|engine's type||1 PD Anzani|
|Power, hp||X 1 35|
|Maximum speed km / h||125|
|Cruising speed, km / h||115|
|Practical range, km||540|
|Practical ceiling, m||600|
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