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ANT-1
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ANT-1

The aircraft Tupolev ANT-1. A photo. History. Characteristics.

 

ANT-1 - Single sport aircraft, which first took to the skies in October 21 1923 years. It was developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev. The project created the AN Tupolev based on their experience in the development of vehicles and snowmobiles. ANT-1 was a cantilever monoplane of mixed construction.

Andrei Tupolev, as a student at the Higher Technical School in 1909 year, met with NE Zhukovsky. Tupolev, conquered his ideas, decides to dedicate himself to the development of domestic aircraft. He was particularly interested in the heavy aircraft (now we say "far" or "strategic").

ANT-1

Since December 1918 year, at the initiative of NE Zhukovsky Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute was opened. He was different from other academic institutions that specialize solely on theoretical issues, the fact that under the leadership of NE Zhukovsky was considered the main focus of an effective combination of scientific developments with the solution of urgent problems of the economy. This approach has defined the future direction of development of aviation in our country. After his death, a panel headed by TsAGI SA Chaplygin. AN Tupolev became the head of the aviation department.

It's time to practice. And it had to start with the strategic decisions: the choice of unit circuits, as well as material for its creation. The designer decided not to dwell on the usual scheme of a biplane and began to study the scheme cantilever monoplane.

Determining the choice of material was much more difficult. Domestic aircraft were wooden, take at least an example of a four-engine plane, Ilya Muromets. It was created from imported wood species: spruce, Oregon pine, hickory. The adherents of the traditional aircraft construction had weighty arguments: space during operation and repair, the presence of factories that produce airplanes on long-established technology, professional engineering and technical personnel. The huge forest tracts of Russia allowed us to hope for the regular supply of building materials to aviation plants.

ANT-1 photo

At that time, for the construction of aircraft from metal, there were no proper conditions: the absence of factories producing metal, people who can handle it, and the technology of its application. Notwithstanding this, A.N. Tupolev became the head of the scientific and technical intelligentsia, who believed that the future of heavy aviation in all-metal aircraft construction. Focusing on the shortcomings of wooden structures, the designers pointed to the lack of unified materials for physical and mechanical testing of wood, fully satisfying the requirements of aircraft engineering; A small resistance to atmospheric phenomena, the absence of methods for investigating model ranges.

They also highlighted the dignity of future metal aircraft:

  • Metal with a practical uniformity will allow as accurate as possible to make calculations.

  • With mass (mass) production of positive displays metal manufacturability.

  • In improving industry and the accumulation of experience in the use of the metal in the construction of its mass will fall and will soon be much less than that of wood.

 

ANT-1 is the first Russian design where kolchugalyuminy was applied. Appointment ANT-1 - sports single aviette. Driving - cantilever monoplane, having a low-wing.

Rigid wing, one-piece with ribs consisting of kolchugalyuminiya. Wooden box-section spars. Fabric covering.

ANT-1

The engine is attached to the forward fuselage, which has a rectangular cross section. Part of the fuselage between the cockpit and the engine trimmed kolchugalyuminiem, the rest - canvas.

The six-cylinder engine in 35 hp Screw the wooden, two-blade.

The cockpit is located above the wing. The dashboard finishes visor, which protects against air flow. On the dashboard are a tachometer pointer speed at the bottom left, bottom right button ignition.

Throttle control is set on the left side. The chassis is composed of two disk wheels, which are fixed on the same axis. It is attached to the fuselage by four struts.

To the upper spars of the fuselage mounted stabilizer. Elevators consist of kolchugalyuminiya. The canvas trimmed with horizontal tail.

Rudder and keel areas made entirely of kolchugalyuminiya and covered with a cloth.

ANT-1 characteristics:



Modification ANT-1
Wingspan, m 7.20
Aircraft Length m 5.40
Height, m 1.70
Wing area, m2 10.00
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 229
maximum take-off 360
engine's type 1 PD Anzani
Power, hp X 1 35
Maximum speed km / h 125
Cruising speed, km / h 115
Practical range, km 540
Practical ceiling, m 600
Crew 1

 

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The Young Republic of Soviets, not yet completed the Civil War, began to seriously think about the construction of aircraft. Moreover, the main tasks were to design completely metal machines and test a new scheme of a free-bearing wing with the prospect of creating long-range heavy aircraft. In TsAGI, for this purpose, a special laboratory was set up (later OKB) under the supervision of A.N. Tupolev, who spent almost 10 years with N.E. Zhukovsky. Building grandiose plans, Tupolev always really approached to an estimation of available technological and organizational possibilities. Therefore, as a test aircraft, it was decided to create a small sports ANT-1.
Immediately on the metal switch did not dare - the design while remained mixed, but the idea of ​​a free-bearing wing was already realized. By the standards of the time, ANT-1 was doing for quite a long time - almost a year and a half. But not because of any turmoil. The aircraft worked out the methods of strength calculation of the wing of the new scheme, as well as specifics of the use of domestic aluminum alloys as an advanced structural material in aircraft construction. ANT-1 performed several test flights, and then the engine failed. To replace it no one has become-the Moor has done his work. The only copy of the aircraft was standing in the hangar for many years. From ANT-1 remained only a few photos, but sorry.

Perhaps, and will not, but thanks to Tupolev began to build all-metal aircraft. On the one hand he is a pioneer and a very talented man, but on the other ... the complete rip-off. I am now about four (ANT-4). Or rather about American B-29. Tupolev Although this can not be blamed. He forced the then government. Who knows? Maybe he would have built excellent fighter. And only on the American bomber had left their size. By the way, is given to me, if on the first model popoteli b, then b able to transform it from an amateur fighter airplane in great.
I have the same question has ripened. ANT-1 do not seem to receive any continuation ?! ANT-2 from the first very different in appearance. So it is not one and the same plane.

Well I do not know. I can not share with you the same confidence about good grades first ANT. Already at that time were more good models of foreign production. Even in the Soviet Union already from the beginning to build a good aircraft. Tupolev undoubtedly made an enormous contribution to the history of Soviet aircraft, but his first-born did not become close to others.

Hello! I really like this plane with its history. I mean that ANT-1 is the first creation of the famous Soviet aircraft designer Tupolev. He planned it as a sports model, so she did not present anything particularly serious. Due to the poor knowledge of the construction of air vehicles, as well as because Tupolev was still young, the ANT-1 had a simple design, and accordingly not very reliable. A huge disappointment at that time was also the fact of using the main material for the device - metal, which at that time was not cheap. But this same little later made Tupolev the most famous Soviet aircraft designer.
You know, even now it is fashionable to do the old model airplanes. And that ANT-1 takes the last place in this regard. The only bad thing that the disk imaging very small ... and virtually no photo. However, one can find the drawings. Not all the time monoplanes boast similar. Although ANT-1 and built exclusively for sport and for this purpose equipped with engines Anzani-35 (Bristol), already at that time, many foreign analogues were superior both in its speed and maneuverability.
I believe that the main advantage of ANT is that its creator - Tupolev was the first at that time in the country who are contrary to the rest of the created all-metal aircraft. Although he was much more expensive for the wood (good enough wood), but this step in the future, helped the Soviet Air Force to win up over German fighters in WWII. We can say that it was the Tupolev "creator" of the first Soviet high-grade aircraft.

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