An-12 - military transport aircraft USSR created Antonov.
The design of the An-12
Aerodynamic configuration of the machine is a 4-engine turboprop vysokoplan tail cargo door and odnokilevym plumage.
The fuselage with a large cargo door and a raised tail provides a convenient loading / unloading of bulky cargo and parachute landing. Jib (side loading device) 2,8 t lifting capacity and the conveyor speed up and facilitate the mooring, loading and unloading. The fuselage of An-12 is almost the same as the construction of the An-10. The main difference - the aft part of the aircraft, which has a tail rifle installation and cargo hatch with a cabin air gunner. In the middle of the fuselage instead of the interior of passengers is cargo compartment. And the front of the car with the cockpit is almost identical with the AN-10, namely its front part. The crew cabin is tight and has a branch on a cargo by a pressure bulkhead with a door.
High traffic has landing gear that allows him to easily take off from a snowy, unpaved airfields and ice. Handling of bulky cargo and equipment is carried at the rear of the fuselage through the cargo hatch. The level of the loading floor of the machine is close to the ground due to "vysokoplan" scheme, which greatly facilitates and simplifies loading. Loading and unloading are carried out using on-board winches, cargo ramps, crane and conveyor. For parachute landing on the platform conveyor is installed in the car. On the floor there are sockets for the development of the An-12 and An-10. For aircraft selected engines AI-20.
December 16 1957, the first flew AN-12 in Irkutsk. Since 1959, he began to be delivered to the Air Force. During its operation take-off weight was increased and was already 61 ton.
Due to the unification of the production of the An-An-12 and 10 the middle part of the fuselage of the aircraft with a cargo cabin constructively coincided with the middle part of the An-10 model fuselage was structurally sealed. However, the rear part of the fuselage, which had a cargo door, a ramp, and is connected to the middle, was originally unsealed. After the production of about a hundred aircraft middle portion still made airtight.
Production of AN-12
In the Soviet Union AN-12 commercially produced only three aircraft plants:
Tashkent (830 copies during 1962-72 years..);
Irkutsk (155 copies, 1957-62 years..);
Voronezh (258 ind., 1962-72 years.).
Representatives of the General Designer were:
Tashkent - PV Balabuev, VF Eroshin, NA Pogorelov, HG Sarymsakov, IG Ermokhin, YN Prikhodko;
Irkutsk - AM Leontiev, AI Shivrina, GA Lugovoi, VZ Bragilevsky;
Voronezh - AM Kondratyev, NP Sobol, YD Goloborodko, VP Heat.
The aircraft was extensively used in emergencies, for military purposes, for the transportation of troops and military equipment, and for freight and passenger transport, search and rescue of space object crews of manned aircraft and spacecraft in distress. He became the impetus for the development of the Air Force of influence.
The most important AN-12 had in the development of the Airborne Forces of the USSR. An-12 was the first massive aircraft in the VTA (military transport aircraft), which allows you to perform a mass landing of military equipment Airborne and Parachute.
An able-12 2 to take on board military vehicles, made on the basis of the BTR-D 2S9 "Nona", or 2 airborne combat vehicles, namely, BMD-1 or 60 parachutists. The cargo cabin jumpers placed in the number 4. Landing is performed in 2 flow: the first - the men in the middle row, second - soldiers, which are located along the boards.
Antonov An-12 used as flying laboratories for such work:
testing of the landing system of spacecraft vehicles;
motor test AI-24 with screws AB-72 aircraft An-24;
testing of aircraft navigation systems, and assembly of goods "Dome" for the IL-76 and 22-An (in 1961 year);
thermal test cards to form fire and heat maps of the area;
Test new ejection seats;
study means of detection of the laser irradiation, missiles and electronic intelligence operations;
testing of new means of detecting submarines;
creation of an artificial survey.
An-12 has established itself as a reliable device that can work even in the most difficult climatic conditions. No less important is the fact that it is unpretentious in service.
Arms of An-12
It has bomber and artillery weapons.
It refers to artillery cannon armament system, which consists of a turret with two guns (23 mm) sighting and computing unit and electrical remote control. Ammunition designed to 700 shells rate - 1250 rounds per minute.
Two photographic bomb and two night backsight signal-bomb or two-day backsight signal for dropping bombs from the beam holder
Six color backsight signal-bombs, or six night backsight naval bombs, or six day backsight naval bombs, or six radiosonde intended to drop out of the holder box
Seventy bombs caliber 100 kg (ZAB, OFAB) or 29-32 bombs on 250 kg (ZAB, OFAB, RBC PTAB), or 18 bombs on 500 kg (FZAB, ZAB FAB) or 18 aviamin for dropping from the conveyor
The navigator cabin for precision bombing and relief goods set sights NKPB-7. In front of the fairing is two outer chassis beam inside bomb racks and two rear. The box holder for six vertical suspension bombs located in the aft fuselage.
If necessary, on the back flap of the cargo hatch mounted a camera on a night-MC / 25 or one day AFA-42.
|Aircraft Length m||33.10|
|Wing area, m2||121.7|
|Domestic fuel l||18100|
|engine's type||4 theater Progress (Ivchenko) AI-20K|
|Power, hp||X 4 4250|
|Maximum speed km / h||777|
|Cruising speed, km / h||670|
|Practical range, km||5700|
|Practical ceiling, m||10200|
|Crew||5 + 1|
|Payload:||90 or 60 soldiers parachutists or 20000 kg of cargo|
|Armament:||two 23-mm cannon NR-23|
Antonov An-12. Gallery.
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